Document Type

Conference Proceeding




Signing Exact English, SEE, is an invented sign system created in the early 1970s by Gerilee Gustason, a deaf university professor and researcher, and Esther Zawolkow, a child of deaf adults (1993). In a rationale for the development of SEE, Nielsen, Luetke, McClean and Stryker (2015) explained that many morphological aspects, like word endings, are not visible in speech and are difficult to speechread. For example, words such as interest, interesting, interests, and interested are nearly impossible to distinguish using speechreading alone and some involve hard-to-hear sounds which make these important, audibly-insalient, elements of English difficult for D/HH children to acquire. SEE was invented to address the need to visually represent words in a grammatically accurate way as well as provide ‘through the air’ access. This research will define the SEE system, exemplify, and explain the research findings on the use of SEE.

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