Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Xiuchun Tian, Mary Anne Amalaradjou, Guillermo Risatti

Field of Study

Animal Science


Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


Plant derived antimicrobials (PDAs) such as trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and carvacrol, possess strong antibacterial properties yet are generally regarded as safe. In the current crisis of antibiotic resistance, the use of PDAs as alternatives to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock has gained momentum. The inhibitory effects of PDAs on common bacteria such as C.difficile, Listeria, Salmonella have been widely studied. PDAs have also been found effective in wall-less bacteria such as Mycoplasma, for which common antibiotics are not effective and vaccines are not always effective. In animal husbandry, PDAs can be potentially added in feed to metaphalactively prevent bacteria infection, but they could also be potentially used to treat infection in the form of an injectable. Previous reports of PDA injection were focus on toxicity or effectiveness after intraperitoneal administration in the mouse model. Here we investigated the toxicity trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and carvacrol after intramuscular in mice. Two levels of control (DMSO) and each PDAs were injected into the hind limbs of CD-1 mice of 7-8 weeks of age. Mice were monitored for weight, eating, behavior, appearance, and foot/leg changes for 2 hours post-injection and twice daily for the next 4 days. The liver, kidney and hind limb were observed for discoloration, swelling, size (mm), weight (g), and relative weight (percentage of organ weight/body weight). A total of 13 parameters were studied for each treatment group. Significant differences between controls and treated were only observed for the relative liver weight at 3.04 mM eugenol (p

Major Advisor

Xiuchun Tian