Document Type



Evolution | Genomics | Paleontology


This series of papers highlights research into how biological exchanges between salty and freshwater habitats have transformed the biosphere. Life in the ocean and in freshwaters have long been intertwined; multiple major branches of the tree of life originated in the oceans and then adapted to and diversified in freshwaters. Similar exchanges continue to this day, including some species that continually migrate between marine and fresh waters. The series addresses key themes of transitions, transformations, and current threats with a series of questions: When did major colonizations of fresh waters happen? What physiographic changes facilitated transitions? What organismal characteristics facilitate colonization? Once a lineage has colonized freshwater, how frequently is there a return to the sea? Have transitions impelled diversification? How do organisms adapt physiologically to changes in halohabitat, and are such adaptive changes predictable? How do marine and freshwater taxa differ in morphology? How are present-day global changes in the environment influencing halohabitat and how are organisms contending with them? The purpose of the symposium and the papers in this volume is to integrate findings at multiple levels of biological organization and from disparate fields, across biological and geoscience disciplines.