Document Type



Behavior and Ethology


Traditional behaviours involve the non-genetic transmission of social information across age classes or generations. French grunts (Haemulon flavolineatum) exhibit social traditions of daytime schooling sites and twilight migration routes. Individuals transplanted to new schooling sites and allowed to follow residents at the new sites used the new migration routes and returned to the new sites in the absence of resident fish. Control fish with no opportunity to learn showed no such directionality or return. This is the first demonstration of apparent pre-cultural behaviour in free-living fish. Our observations suggest additional classes of behaviour and taxonomic groups in which pre-cultural activities are likely to have evolved.


Article was published in Animal Behaviour:

DOI for article is: