Document Type



Medicine and Health Sciences


Inflammatory responses can vary depending on a myriad of factors including: 1) the initiating stimulus or trigger, 2) the cell types, involved in the response, and 3) the specific effector cytokine-chemokine milieus produced. The compilation of these and other factors in a given mechanistic context is sometimes referred to as the “inflammome”. Humans and other higher order mammals have evolved (over time) several discrete inflammomes to counter the effects of pathogens. However, when these inflammomes are induced inappropriately, they drive the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. The vast majority of biological anti-inflammatory treatments currently being developed are focused on the post hoc inhibition of downstream effectors by anti-cytokine monoclonal antibodies and receptor antagonists. This prevailing “end-point treatment” has even directed a new disease classification paradigm, namely a cytokine-based disease classification, as opposed to a traditional diagnosis based on a particular tissue or organ system dysfunction. Although this approach has a number of advantages, it omits the processes that led to the generation of the inflammatory effectors in the first place. In this review, we will expand the cytokine-based disease taxonomy into an inflammome-based taxonomy that includes interventions that subvert a priori cytokine development that can complement post hoc inhibition.


Biochem Pharmacol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Jan 22. Published in final edited form as: Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Nov 15; 92(2): 184–191. Published online 2014 Sep 6. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.08.027 PMCID: PMC4722871 NIHMSID: NIHMS751664