Document Type



Medicine and Health Sciences




Contingency management (CM) is a widely recognized empirically-supported addiction treatment; however, dissemination and adoption of CM into routine clinical practice has been slow. Assessment of beliefs about CM may highlight key barriers and facilitators of adoption and inform dissemination efforts. In the present study, we developed a 35-item questionnaire (Contingency Management Beliefs Questionnaire; CMBQ) assessing CM beliefs and examined the relation of these beliefs to clinician characteristics and clinical practices.


The web-based study was completed by 617 substance abuse treatment providers. We examined the factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in a randomly selected half-sample (n =318) and evaluated the generalizability of the solution using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the second half-sample (n = 299).


EFA results suggested a 3-factor solution with 32 items retained; factors represented general barriers, training-related barriers, and pro-CM items. CFA results supported the solution, and reliability was good within each half-sample (α = .88 and 0.90). Therapeutic approach, years experience in addictions field, perception of CM’s research support, prior CM training, and CM adoption interest were significantly associated with the factors.


Overall, participants viewed CM favorably yet endorsed barriers, indicating a need for more extensive and targeted response to the most common misperceptions in dissemination efforts.


Drug Alcohol Depend. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2013 March 1. Published in final edited form as: Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 March 1; 121(3): 205–212. Published online 2011 September 16. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.08.027 PMCID: PMC3243803 NIHMSID: NIHMS321776