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Height of instrument (HI) blunders in GPS measurements cause position errors. These errors can be pure vertical, pure horizontal, or a mixture of both. There are different error regimes depending on whether both the base and the rover both have HI blunders, if just the base has an HI blunder, or just the rover has an HI blunder. The resulting errors are on the order of 30 cm for receiver separations of 1000 km for an HI blunder of 2 m. Given the complicated nature of the errors, we believe it would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect such errors by visual inspection. This serves to underline the necessity to enter GPS HIs correctly.


Originally published: T.H. and Hiscox, A.L. 2005. Position Errors Caused by GPS HI Blunders. Survey Review 38 (298): 262-273.