Document Type



International Law


Throughout Europe, religious majoritarian cultures have been traditionally hostile to minority faiths. The European Court of Human Rights has been slow to apply Article 9, religious tolerance. Albeit, today it is generally accepted that no one religion is destined to become the common faith of Europe, it is still very difficult in European law and politics to say how much each of the 47 Member States of the states of the Council of Europe should be permitted to restrict religious liberty domestically to protect and nurture a majoritarian faith, especially a majoritarian Christian faith. Europe, in many ways, is still in the shadow of the Peace of Westphalia, promoting intra-European peace by permitting the Continent’s states to adopt, if they wish, their own national visions of a Christian society.