Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Tyson A. Miller; Quing Zhu

Field of Study



Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


Indocyanine green dye is the only FDA approved NIR fluorescent dye that can be used in humans. 2-Nitroimidazoles are very effective radiosensitizers, have low cytotoxicity, and target hypoxic tissue. By coupling the two together, hypoxic tumors can be targeted and imaged. Previous work has been done to couple 2-nitroimidazole to both sides of the indocyanine green dye. This work focuses on expanding that concept to couple 2-nitroimidazole to only one side of the dye, thus allowing for the other end to be available to couple to another compound, generating a half loaded 2-nitroimidazole indocyanine green dye. In theory, this half-loaded dye can be coupled to various compounds resulting in unique properties for the dye. Our focus was on coupling the half-loaded 2-nitroimidazole indocyanine green dye to single-walled carbon nanotubes which also have fluorescent properties. It is hoped that more dye will be carried to the hypoxic tumor leading to an increase in the observed fluorescence, and dye retention in the tumor for an extended period of time.

Multiple half-loaded nitroimidazole ICG dyes were synthesized. The half-loaded 2-nitro ethanolamine carboxylic acid ICG was chosen to be coupled to the amine functionalized nanotubes. The biological results for this product are pending, as of the writing of this thesis.

Major Advisor

Michael B. Smith