Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Carl M. Maresh, Craig R. Denegar

Field of Study



Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


The effect of different set-repetition protocols on squat technique in resistance trained individuals.

Pandit, AL, Kraemer, WJ, Hooper, DR.

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether or not the increase in repetitions within a set will change the technique of the exercise, and how repetition number in a set affects exercise technique in resistance trained individuals in three different set-repetition protocols equated by total volume.

Methods: 10 men (24.3 ± 2.8 yrs; 179.7 ± 5.7 cm; 85.5 ± 12.5 kg) and 10 women (23.9 ± 2.4 yrs; 166.2 ± 9.1 cm; 66.8 ± 8.4 kg) were the subjects of this study. Each subject completed 5 visits. The first visit was a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) test of the squat. The second visit was a familiarization visit. The last three visits were testing visits assigned in a balanced and randomized order. The three visits consisted of either 1 set of 30 repetitions, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, or 10 sets of 3 repetitions, all at 60% of the subject’s 1-RM. For the protocols with multiple sets, 3 minutes of rest was given between each set. Peak power and peak velocity for each repetition was recorded as well as the hip and knee angles at the bottom of each repetition. A three-way (gender x condition x time) analysis of variance with repeated measures (MANOVA) was used to analyze the data. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Significant differences were observed in all four dependent variables. The 1 set of 30 repetitions protocol showed significant differences in both men and women in power, velocity, and hip angle. Significant differences were observed between all three protocols in the knee angle.

Conclusions: Set-repetition protocols, though their volumes may be equal, are executed differently depending on how the total volume is broken down by sets, repetitions, and rest.

Major Advisor

William J. Kraemer