Normative data on a tactile Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in sighted and visually impaired populations

Date of Completion

January 1999


Health Sciences, Ophthalmology|Psychology, Clinical|Psychology, Psychometrics




The present study obtains normative data for a neuropsychological test to be used with visually impaired patients. The test was designed to measure higher cognitive functions involving complex decision making, abstraction, and flexibility and is a tactile adaptation of a standard neuropsychological instrument—the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Forty-three subjects consisting of neurologically/visually impaired, healthy/visually impaired and healthy/normally sighted were assessed via an abbreviated neuropsychological battery. Results demonstrated significant differences between the neurologically impaired and non-impaired groups on the Tactile-WCST whereas a visual impairment alone did not relate to a change in performance. In addition, the psychometric properties of the Tactile-WCST were consistent with those reported in the literature for the original instrument. Results are discussed in terms of their clinical and statistical relevance. ^