Self-modeling for teaching swimming to persons with physical disabilities

Date of Completion

January 1989


Education, Physical|Education, Educational Psychology|Education, Special




Self-modeling is the observation of oneself from edited videotape replay showing only the desired positive target behaviors (Dowrick, 1976). This process of videotaping for self-modeling provides children having physical disabilities with a visual picture of critical swimming-stroke information that is indispensable in cases where there has been a loss of sensitivity in the extremities (Dowrick, 1980).^ In the present study the efficacy of self-modeling as a method for teaching swimming to children with physical disabilities of the lower extremities was investigated. A multiple-probe baseline-across-subjects design with multiple treatments has been used to investigate the effectiveness of self-modeling (Barlow & Hersen, 1976; Sidman, 1960; Tawney & Gast, 1984). Ten children randomly assigned to Treatment I or Treatment II were evaluated for changes relative to speed, power and stroke-quality in their performance of breaststroke swimming-skills.^ Measurement for the analysis of results were taken from the interrater agreement of trained observers collecting data from the videotapes. The split-middle method of trend analysis was used to measure changes in trend-direction and stability. The analysis and interpretation of the trends and levels of visual graphic data to identify changes in the performance of swimming skills occurred in close association with the interventions. The results of the study indicated that the students who received self-modeling with individual instruction improved in performance when compared with students who received traditional individual instruction insofar as positive changes in stroke quality, speed and power while performing breaststroke skills were concerned. In this study the effect of self-modeling in improving self-efficacy for persons with physical disabilities was also analyzed. The results indicated that the students with self-modeling demonstrated higher self-efficacy than the students receiving traditional individual instruction. ^