Date of Completion


Embargo Period



college and career readiness, school counselors, effectiveness, student indicators, counseling components, RAMP, ASCA National Model

Major Advisor

Rachelle Pérusse, Ph.D.

Associate Advisor

Orville Karan, Ph.D.

Associate Advisor

Robert Colbert, Ph.D.

Field of Study

Educational Psychology


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between a fully implemented American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model school counseling program on student career readiness and college attainment. The Delphi technique was employed to gain consensus from a group of experts on indicators of students’ college and career readiness, as well as counseling components necessary for promoting equitable college and career readiness. Eleven school counselors from districts with Recognized ASCA Model Programs (RAMP) at every level (K – 12) agreed to fully participate as experts in this study. Expert participants identified 60 indicators of student college and career readiness, as well as 42 counseling components necessary to promote equitable college and career readiness. Student outcomes informing program effectiveness were explored. Identified student indicators and counseling components were compared and contrasted with existing frameworks. Suggestions for school counselors are provided based on the results of this study.