Yan WeiFollow

Date of Completion


Embargo Period



lesson planning, Tier Three, reading instruction, reading content, reading pedagogy, intensive instruction

Major Advisor

Allison Lombardi

Associate Advisor

Brandi Simonsen

Associate Advisor

Michael Coyne

Field of Study

Educational Psychology


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Reading, as a foundational skill for adolescents to have in order to compete in the labor market, has received great attention in the K-12 and postsecondary education research. The T-TIP (The Tier Three Instructional Planning Tool) is designed in alignment with the critical components of reading content and pedagogy for adolescents with reading difficulties in multi-tiered system of support. In the study, a single-subject AB multiple-baseline design across subjects will be utilized to investigate the effectiveness of T-TIP on teacher lesson planning, with a focus on corrective and elaborative feedback within Tier Three literacy instructional settings in secondary schools. Findings revealed that there is a functional relationship between T-TIP prompt and improving reading pedagogical behaviors (providing corrective and elaborative feedback) in intensive instruction. In addition, the social validity of the T-TIP demonstrated the acceptability and satisfaction in using T-TIP for teacher lesson planning and implementation of the instruction at Tier Three settings. The impact of the T-TIP on the frequency and sustainability of evidence-based reading instruction and teaching behaviors will be discussed along with the future research and recommendations.