Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Baritenor, Baritone, Tenor, Voice, Vocal Performance, Vocal Pedagogy, Zwischen, Fach, Voice Classification, Singing, Sing, Singer, Opera, Soprano, Mezzo Soprano, Bass, Music

Major Advisor

Dr. Alain Frogley

Co-Major Advisor

Dr. Constance Rock

Associate Advisor

Dr. Peter Kaminsky

Field of Study



Doctor of Musical Arts

Open Access

Open Access


This study will examine the Zwischenfach colloquially referred to as the baritenor. A large body of published research exists regarding the physiology of breathing, the acoustics of singing, and solutions for specific vocal faults. There is similarly a growing body of research into the system of voice classification and repertoire assignment. This paper shall reexamine this research in light of baritenor voices. After establishing the general parameters of healthy vocal technique through appoggio, the various tenor, baritone, and bass Fächer will be studied to establish norms of vocal criteria such as range, timbre, tessitura, and registration for each Fach. The study of these Fächer includes examinations of the historical singers for whom the repertoire was created and how those roles are cast by opera companies in modern times. The specific examination of baritenors follows the same format by examining current and historical Zwischenfächer voices. Additionally, existing research on vocal faults is examined from the perspective of how the flaws in vocal technique may obscure the criteria of timbre, range, tessitura, and registration, thereby rendering voice classification impossible.