Document Type



Civil Engineering | Environmental Engineering | Geotechnical Engineering


Laterally loaded piles are analyzed using the Fourier finite element method. Pile response was observed to be a function of the relative stiffness of pile and soil and of the pile slenderness ratio. The analysis is mostly performed for piles embedded in elastic soil with constant and linearly varying modulus although the pile response in two-layer soil profiles is also investigated. Equations describing pile head deflection, rotation and maximum bending moment are proposed for flexible long piles and stubby rigid piles. The design equations were developed after plotting the pile responses as functions of pile-soil stiffness ratio and pile slenderness ratio. These plots can also be used as design charts. Design examples illustrating the use of the analysis are also provided.