With the rise of the internet, work from the of fields of digital sociology, communications/social media studies, and online research methods have become increasingly relevant for music education scholars both investigating and facilitating music teaching and learning in online contexts. While opportunities for online music making, teaching, and learning activities have grown exponentially, the number of online places dedicated to music making, learning, and sharing has exploded with the arrival of COVID as much of the world moves online. What was once an option – going online to teach and learn music – has now become a necessity for most musicians and music educators. What existing models can music educators draw on to teach and learn music in the age of COVID?

We explore this question in this, the second of a three-part investigation of online communities of practice. The first study in the series (authors, 2021) surveyed digital music education in formal settings such as schools and institutions. This paper, second in the series, addresses online communities of practice involving music learning in what would usually take place in informal settings. We review current research in informal music education into areas of genre (vernacular, traditional, popular), fan-based, and composition. Our third and future investigation will consider the implications of on and offline convergent music teaching and learning. We contend that the most important and significant aspect of this work is not the technology but rather the sociological perspective -- the interactions and discourse that people have with one another through these digital enablers that render music learning, making, and teaching possible.