Rose LisiFollow

Date of Completion

Spring 4-23-2020

Thesis Advisor(s)

Ruth F. Lucas

Honors Major



Maternal, Child Health and Neonatal Nursing | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nursing


Background: Nipple and breast pain while breastfeeding is a common reason why women stop breastfeeding earlier than they would have liked to. Texting is effective as a long-term intervention to support breastfeeding.

Objectives: To examine the effect of texting to support mothers to manage their breast and nipple symptoms and pain.

Method: A secondary analysis of a pilot randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a breastfeeding self-management (BSM) intervention using texting to provide strategies for mothers to manage their breast and nipple pain. A three-group comparison, the intervention group with “barriers” and “non-barrier”, and the control group, was conducted to determine how texting affects participant’s report of breastfeeding symptoms or pain. An analysis in ANOVA and Chi-Square were conducted to determine which symptoms the intervention addressed.

Results: Women in the barrier group reported significantly increased occurrences of cracked or bleeding nipples compared to the other two groups [F(2, 165)] = 5.685, p = .004. Women in the non-barrier group reported significantly decreased occurrences of nipple pain compared to the women in the other groups [F(2,165)] = 4.36, p = .014. Both differences were significant at weeks 1, cracked/bleeding nipples X2 (6, N = 56) = 18.375, p > .005; and nipple pain X2 (6, N = 56) = 12.933, p > .044.

Discussion: Text messages significantly reduced nipple pain and provided strategies to significantly reduce the occurrence of cracked and bleeding nipples.