This research investigated discourse in linguistically diverse elementary mathematics classrooms on a continuum from univocal (transmitting meaning) to dialogic (dialogue to construct meaning). Although analysis revealed predominantly univocal discourse in these classrooms, it also uncovered verbal moves and promising practices for supporting English learners with dialogic discourse and mathematical understanding.
Truxaw, Mary, "Dialogic Discourse in Linguistically Diverse Elementary Mathematics Classes: Lessons Learned from Dual Language Classrooms" (2015). NERA Conference Proceedings 2015. 13.