Both states and private associations have well-established standing to assert claims in federal court based on harm to their constituents. Cities, though they have much in common with both states and associations, are generally denied that very sort of representational standing. That denial unnecessarily squelches local engagement and cities’ ability to address issues central to their and their constituents’ well-being. This Article contends that denying representational standing to cities is not only unjustified, it is unnecessary—there is ample room for municipalities to sue under the existing doctrine of associational standing.
Caruso, Kaitlin Ainsworth, "Associational Standing for Cities" (2014). Connecticut Law Review. 264.