Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Lawrence E. Armstrong, Carl M. Maresh

Field of Study



Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


Context: Dehydration can have negative effects on performance and mood during intense exercise.

Objective: To examine a soccer program to determine the effectiveness of their hydration protocol during preseason training.

Design: 9-day mixed methods study of preseason training sessions (97.3±21.3 min) and scrimmages (123±14.1 min) for men’s soccer athletes on an NCAA division I soccer team with post-hoc interviews of staff members.

Setting: Outdoor soccer field and indoor training facility.

Participants:21 male NCAA division I soccer athletes (age 20±1 years, height 187.5±2 cm).

Main Outcome Measures: Hydration (BML ,Ucol­, USG, Uosmo), Mood (thirst, thermal, ESQ, POMS), Performance (distance covered, total efforts, max velocity, Tgi, HRavg, HRmax), and interview.

Results: No differences between first year players vs. returning players or training sessions vs. scrimmages for BML, Ucol, USG, or Tgi (pcol­ 5±1; post-practice USG 1.021±0.001; pre-practice Uosmo 746±159.8). Performance was lower than professional male soccer players (distance 5463.32±1088.26 m; HRavg 132.39±14.18 bpm; HRmax­ 183.6±5.99 bpm; total efforts 250±58; max velocity 25.51±1.84 km/h; average Tgi 38.11±0.35 °C). Mood did not significantly change over the preseason period (pre-practice thirst 3±0l; pre-practice thermal 3.8±0.4; pre-practice POMSTMD 5±4; pre-practice ESQ 5±1). The interview revealed major themes: education and importance placed on hydration, with minor themes: testing, during practice, and outside of practice.

Conclusions: Mild dehydration occurred during intense preseason training. Performance and mood did not decline over the preseason period. This is likely due to emphasis placed on hydration by staff.

Major Advisor

Douglas J. Casa