Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Carl M. Maresh; William J. Kraemer

Field of Study



Master of Science

Open Access

Open Access


Phytosterols (PS) have become a recent popular medication alternative for treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have proven effective. Whether PS decrease risk of cardiovascular disease through other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein particle size and inflammatory markers, remains unclear. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of two forms of PS in milk on lipoprotein particle size, inflammatory markers and fat-soluble vitamins. METHODS: Twenty subjects (13 males, 7 females; age; 55±6.1 years, height; 169±10 cm, weight; 77.9±16.9 kg, BMI; 27.3) consumed 16oz of cow’s milk daily for 12 weeks. The three sequential four-week phases consisted of 2% cow’s milk, 2 grams/day of ‘unaided’ PS in skim milk, and 2 grams/day of ‘aided’ triglyceride recrystallized PS (TRP) in fat-free milk. Blood was taken after each phase for NMR lipoprotein particle size analysis, lipid panel, glucose, insulin, inflammatory markers, and fat-soluble vitamins. RESULTS: Subjects maintained body weight and composition, habitual diet, and physical activity throughout the twelve weeks (p>0.05). Total LDL particle concentrations from NMR decreased to a greater extent with TRP (-15%) compared to unaided (-5%) PS (p

Major Advisor

Jeff S. Volek