Increasing student active-engaged time and self-efficacy through the use of self-modeling

Date of Completion

January 2002


Education, Educational Psychology




This study investigated the treatment effects of self-modeling in increasing the frequency of students' active participation in a general education classroom setting during instances of teacher directed instruction. The effect of the self-modeling intervention on student self-efficacy was also examined. Self-modeling is a cognitive-behavioral intervention in which an individual engages in the spaced observations of him/herself on an edited videotape depicting only exemplary target behaviors. Self-modeling promotes the inclusion of students in the general education classroom and supports the mandate of least restrictive environment. The study employed a multiple baseline design across students with follow-up. Three general education students, in the same suburban elementary school, from different classes, participated in the study. The students were nominated for inclusion in the study by their teachers because of their lack of active participation in the classroom and seemingly low self-efficacy across constructs. A readily available systematic direct observation method using momentary time sampling was utilized in order to determine the frequency of each student's active engaged time during the baseline, treatment and follow up phases of the study. Random peer comparison students were also observed for contrast. A self-modeling videotape was constructed during the baseline phase. Each student watched his/her videotape prior to each observation session during the intervention phase. In addition, each student completed an empirically supported self-report questionnaire prior to the treatment phase and again after the follow up phase. All three students in the study demonstrated increased levels of active participation in the classroom after the self-modeling treatment. Effect sizes were .85, 1.63, and 3.35 for Students 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the intervention phase. Effect sizes were 2.10, 1.11, and 3.94 for Students 1, 2, and 3, respectively in the follow-up phase. In the area of self-efficacy, each student rated him/herself in the average range, or better, across all constructs on both administrations of the self-report questionnaire. No change was evident in the pre- and post-intervention ratings. The results of the study support the view that self-modeling is an effective and parsimonious intervention method for increasing student active-participation in the general education classroom. The study is an extension of the body of research of the positive effects of self-modeling compiled in a variety of settings. ^