Effect of closed- and open-kinetic chain resistance training on physical performance in older adults

Date of Completion

January 2002


Gerontology|Education, Physical




The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two different programs of lower extremity resistance training on physical performance in older adults. This study contrasted programs of resistance training comprised of either closed-kinetic-chain or oven-kinetic-chain movements. The subjects of gnus study were 43 volunteers between the age of 62 and 80 years. ^ The subjects were randomly assigned into closed-kinetic-chain (CKC) (n = 13) or open-kinetic-chain (OKC) (n = 13) resistance training groups or into a non-exercising control group (n = 8). Subjects in the two resistance trained groups participated in eight weeks of exercise. The closed-kinetic-chain group performed one set of the step-up, lateral step-up, squat, and standing calf raise exercise at an intensity of eight repetitions maximum. The OKC training group performed three sets of leg extension, leg curl, hip adduction, hip abduction, and seated calf press at an intensity of eight repetitions maximum. Physical performance testing was conducted before and after training, which included walking speed, five repetition stand to sit test, and balance. Post-test scores for each test were compared among the three groups using ANCOVA procedures, where the pretest scores were used as a covariate. ^ Both resistance trained groups improved performance in walking speed and the five repetition stand to sit test compared to controls (p < .05). However, the was no significant difference between CKC and OKC (p > .05). The CKC and OKC groups increased walking speed by 13% and 11% respectively. Five repetition stand-to-sit scores increased by 14.5% and 8% in the CKC and OKC groups respectively. There were no significant differences in balance after training in either training group compared to control (p < .05). ^ The results of this study indicate that physical performance is improved after 8-weeks of resistance training. There was a tendency for the CKC group to out perform the OKC group, however these differences were not significant. The positive changes in performance are attributed to a training effect from resistance exercise that does not appear to be enhanced by the inclusion of CKC exercise. ^