Policy dialogues: Gender equity in sport

Date of Completion

January 2002


Women's Studies|Education, Administration|Political Science, General




Using Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 as a case study, this research examined the initiation, consideration, formulation, adoption and implementation of this policy. Title IX, whose regulation and implementation continues to be debated today, provided an ideal case for disclosing those factors involved in the development of policy over time in the American political process, which was understood to be an ongoing, iterative process involving all three branches of government. In response to more recent policy literature that focuses primarily on the policy making that occurs in one arena or between Congress and the executive, this study contended that an accurate portrayal of policy evolution must also include the role of the judiciary as an equal participant in the policy process. ^ This theoretical framework was derived from John Kingdon's model in Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Kingdon's model, which applies primarily to the legislative arena, argues for the importance of political timing and the concurrence of problem recognition, policy alternative generation and political events. This study expanded his model to conceptualize the policy processes that also occur in the executive and the judiciary. Louis Fisher's notion of shared constitutional interpretation among all three branches of government also lent itself to the concept of a tri-institutional, relational policy-making process. Furthermore, although Title IX's history punctuates the ability that organized forces have to instigate and shape policy change, this research focused on how the arenas of government, and the institutionalized rules and norms with which they are associated, both defined and altered the formation of public policy over time. ^ Historical documents, secondary sources and first person interviews were used to examine the changes that took place in Title IX's development from 1970 through 1988. Detailed qualitative analysis revealed support for the tri-institutional policy making framework proposed. ^