Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Masculinity, Media Effects, Cultivation, Social Comparison

Major Advisor

Diana Rios, PhD

Associate Advisor

David Atkin, PhD

Associate Advisor

Ross Buck, PhD

Field of Study

Communication Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


The current study utilized a survey approach using a convenience. Participants were asked to answer a battery of questions about media use, masculine ideal perceptions, and identification with masculine norms. Results showed that general media use positively predicted the perceptions of the ideal man’s drive for success, power, and competition. Contrary to cultivation research, television use found no significant relationships. Results also indicated that the ideal man’s conformity to masculine norms significantly predicted one’s own conformity to masculine norms. Many gender differences were present for media use, ideal perceptions, and identification with masculine norms. A structural equation model is presented with all findings. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.