Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Anthocyanin, Antioxidant, Anthocyanin composition, Berry, Anti-inflammatory effect, Hypolipidemic effect, Obesity

Major Advisor

Dr. Ock K. Chun

Associate Advisor

Dr. Sung I. Koo

Associate Advisor

Dr. Maria Luz Fernandez

Associate Advisor

Dr. Ji-Young Lee

Associate Advisor

Dr. Paulo H. Verardi

Field of Study

Nutritional Science


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Campus Access


The objectives of this study were to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of anthocyanins in blueberry, blackberry and black currant, and to evaluate the contribution of the anthocyanin composition to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Blackberry contained strong antioxidative anthocyanins and had the greatest TAC among the three berries. For cell study, the anthocyanin fractions of the three berries significantly lowered intracellular ROS level. Additionally, the berry anthocyanins from the three berries were anti-inflammatory and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, their effects among the three berry anthocyanins were not significantly different. Anthocyanin fractions inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation, contributing to the suppression of inflammatory gene expression. Using Nrf2-/- mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of berry anthocyanins were found to be independent of Nrf2 pathway but by suppressing the expression of NADPH oxidase. For an animal study using high fat diet-induced obese mice, plasma triglyceride was lower in blackberry group compared with control fed high fat diet. Black currant group had less crown-like structures in adipose tissue than control group. Therefore, our findings suggest that anthocyanin composition in berry contributed to the beneficial effects of berries.