Date of Completion


Embargo Period



stuttering, anxiety, virtual reality, Video Self-Modeling, Virtual Reality Self-Modeling

Major Advisor

Melissa A. Bray

Co-Major Advisor

Sandra M. Chafouleas

Associate Advisor

James C. Kaufman

Associate Advisor

Melissa Root

Associate Advisor

Orville Karan

Field of Study

Educational Psychology


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Virtual Reality Self-Modeling (VRSM) is a new self-modeling intervention. It is the coming together of two well established interventions, Video Self-Modeling (VSM) and virtual reality (VR) and can be described as using 360 degree VR videos, viewed through a VR system headset or smartphone, to depict individuals self-modeling a desired behavior. By using 360-degree video, individuals who watch VRSM interventions will be able to view themselves eliciting a desired behavior while feeling as if they immersed within the environment being watched. The distinction between traditional VR treatments and traditional Video Self-Modeling (VSM) treatments is that VRSM delivers both self-modeling and immersive exposure in order to promote treatment gains. Three adult participants with clinically significant chronic were administered VRSM interventions depicting themselves exhibiting fluent speech in historically problematic speaking situations. The research utilized a randomized multiple baseline design to investigate whether VRSM is an effective intervention for remediating stuttering and reducing situational anxiety. After receiving VRSM as an intervention for stuttering, all participants demonstrated clinically meaningful reductions in their conversational stuttering severity, however limited treatment effects were found among prompted speech and anxiety data.