Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Physics, High Energy Physics, Particle Physics, Elementary Particle Physics, proton, D-term, form factors, quantum field theory, Klein Gordon field, fermion field, scalar field, pressure, shear, Q-balls, energy momentum tensor, stress energy tensor, stress tensor, GPDs, general parton distributions, DVCS, Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering, gravitational form factors, pressure distribution, shear distribution, bag model, chiral model, exact solution, 3d+1 field equation, 3+1 field equation

Major Advisor

Dr. Peter Schweitzer

Associate Advisor

Dr. Jeffrey Schweitzer

Associate Advisor

Dr. Thomas Blum

Field of Study



Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


The most fundamental information about a particle is contained in the matrix elements of its energy-momentum tensor (EMT): the mass and spin. But the EMT contains more information than that. Equally important yet far less known is the D-term and with it, the information contained in the spatial components of the EMT. The D-term and the spatial components of the EMT show in detail how the strong forces inside the nucleon balance to form a bound state and provides unique insights on the nucleon structure. The goal of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the physics associated with the D-term. We investigate the EMT form factors of spin-0 and spin 1/2-particles, focusing especially on the unknown particle property D term.