Date of Completion


Embargo Period



venipuncture, pediatric procedural fear, pediatric pain, J-TIp needleless system, EMLA

Major Advisor

Dr Sandra Bellini

Associate Advisor

Dr. Renee Manworren

Associate Advisor

Dr. Xiaomei Cong

Associate Advisor

Dr. Len Comeau

Associate Advisor

Dr. Jaqueline McGrath

Field of Study



Doctor of Nursing Practice

Open Access

Open Access


Venipuncture is recognized as the leading cause of procedure pain and fear in pediatric hospitals and emergency rooms.

Objective: The comparison of procedural fear and pain related to venipuncture after the use of the J-tip needleless lidocaine system versus the standard of care (EMLA) in pediatric patients. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effectiveness of a needleless system for instilling local anesthetic by measuring procedural fear and pain and comparing these outcomes to EMLA.

Methods: Pediatric patients aged 8 years to 18 years were randomly assigned to treatment with the J-tip needleless system or EMLA prior to venipuncture. Patients rated procedural fear and pain of the venipuncture procedure using the Children’s Fear Scale (CFS) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS).

Results: An analysis of variance for repeated measures was conducted to compare the effect of the J- tip needleless devices to EMLA on procedural fear with three different measurements using the CFS. The results showed no significant interaction between the treatment groups. Both groups showed a reduction in fear from the three time periods. An independent T-Test was used to compare the effect of the J- tip needleless devices to EMLA on pediatric pain using a Visual Analog Scale. There was a statistically significant difference in the pain scores between the EMLA and the J-Tip group.

Conclusion: This study found that there was statistically significant difference between the J-Tip and EMLA for pediatric pain and but no statistical difference in procedural fear. The results supported that EMLA provided more effective local anesthetic for venipuncture.