Date of Completion


Embargo Period



Probation, reentry, mass incarceration, employment, employability, mandated stipulations

Major Advisor

Cristina Wilson, PhD.

Associate Advisor

Lisa Werkmeister Rozas, PhD.

Associate Advisor

Frederic Reamer, PhD.

Field of Study

Social Work


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


Roughly 8,400 of the 24,000 people under the purview of the Rhode Island Department of Corrections are on active probation. These 8,400 people must regularly attend meetings with their probation officer, court appointments, drug treatment programs, mental health counseling, and various crime-specific stipulations (such as anger management groups). There is minimal evidence to suggest that mandating these stipulations reduce a probationer’s likelihood to be rearrested. There is a wealth of evidence to suggest that having a job does decrease the likelihood that a probationer will be rearrested. The effect probation stipulations have on a probationer’s employment outcomes is unknown. Also unknown is the influence that probation stipulations have on a probationer’s perceptions of their own employability (self-perceptions of ability to find and maintain a job). This study, utilizing a cross-sectional design and collecting data from Rhode Island probationers via survey (n= 170), explores existing correlations between probation stipulations, employment outcomes, and perceptions of employability. Results suggest that probation stipulations are negatively correlated with some employment outcomes and perceptions of employability and that probationers who feel supported by their probation officer have better outcomes and perceptions than those probationers who do not feel supported by their probation officer. Relationships, though significant, are not substantive, as effect sizes are minimal to moderate. Further research with a larger sample size and conducted longitudinally may better explain correlations uncovered in this research.