Date of Completion


Embargo Period



elementary mathematical writing, instructional guidelines

Major Advisor

Tutita M. Casa

Associate Advisor

Megan E. Staples

Associate Advisor

Suzanne M. Wilson

Field of Study

Curriculum and Instruction


Doctor of Philosophy

Open Access

Open Access


For over two decades the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has called for writing to support students' understanding of mathematics (NCTM, 1989; 1991; 2000; 2014). However, the literature on writing in mathematics class reveals a mixture of writing that attends to the mathematics discipline and writing associated with language arts. To clarify writing that attends to the mathematics discipline, the Elementary Mathematical Writing Task Force recently defined mathematical writing as writing to reason and to communicate mathematically (Casa et al., 2016). Instructional resources lack guidance for teachers as to how to implement such writing. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop an instructional resource, instructional guidelines, to support elementary mathematical writing. A framework for developing mathematics instructional guidelines was first created and then applied to the development of instructional guidelines for elementary mathematical writing. The methodology used to inform the development of the instructional guidelines was based on design research. Findings suggest that the resulting instructional guidelines for elementary mathematical writing are practical, comprehensive, and attend to the mathematics discipline.

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